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kerala

Kerala (help·info) or Keralam (Malayalam: കേരളം, Kēraḷam) is an Indian state located on the Malabar coast of south-west India. It was created on 1 November 1956 by the States Reorganisation Act, and it combined various Malayalam speaking regions.
The state has an area of 38,863 km2 (15,005 sq mi) and is bordered by Karnataka to the north and northeast, Tamil Nadu to the south and southeast and the Arabian Sea[note] towards the west. Thiruvananthapuram is the capital city. Kochi and Kozhikode are other major cities. As per a survey by The Economic Times, five out of ten best cities to live in India are located in Kerala.[4] Kerala is a popular tourist destination for its backwaters, yoga, Ayurvedic treatments[5] and tropical greenery.
Kerala has the highest Human Development Index in India, comparable with that of first world nations but with a much lower per capita income.[6][7] The state has the highest literacy rate in India with 94.59 percent.[2] The state recently became and is currently the only one to have banking facility in every village.[8] A survey conducted in 2005 by Transparency International ranked Kerala as the least corrupt state in the country.[9] Kerala has witnessed significant migration of its people, especially to the Persian Gulf countries during the Kerala Gulf boom, and is heavily dependent on remittances from its large Malayali expatriate community.[10][11][12][13]
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Kerala is full of greenery and nature. Natives of Kerala (Malayalis) refer to the state as Keralam.[14] Scholars agree that Kerala transliterates Classical Tamil Cheralam ("Land of the Cheras") or chera-alam, ("declivity of a hill or a mountain slope/range"). The state was anciently called Cheralam and Cherala Nadu.[15][16][17] A 3rd-century BCE rock inscription by emperor Asoka the Great references Kerala as Keralaputra.[18] The Graeco-Roman trade map Periplus Maris Erythraei references Kerala's Chera territory as Cerobothra.
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Kerala in religious traditions

The oldest of the surviving Hindu Puranas, the Matsya Purana, sets the story of the first of the incarnations of Lord Vishnu, the Matsya Avatar, and King Manu (King Satyavrata, mankind's ancestor), among Kerala's Malaya Mountains.[49][50][51][52]
The earliest Sanskrit text to mention Kerala by name is the Aitareya Aranyaka.[2]
The legendary king Mahabali is said to have ruled from Kerala in a reign of universal happiness and prosperity. On his passing away he was appointed ruler of the netherworld (Patalam) by Vamana, the fifth avatar of Lord Vishnu. Once a year, during the Onam festival, he returns to Kerala.

Parasurama, surrounded by settlers, commanding Varuna to part the seas and reveal Kerala.


In the religious texts known as the Puranas, Kerala is Parasurama Kshetram ("The Land of Parasurama"). Parasurama was a warrior sage and an Avatar of Mahavishnu. When he threw his battle axe from Gokarna into the sea at Kanyakumari, the land of Kerala arose from the waters.[53] Tradition says that Parasurama minted gold coins called Rasi, sowed some of them in Travancore and buried the surplus in cairns.[54] Similar legends link Parasurama to the Pandyan dynasty.[55]
The Kollam Era of the Malayalam calendar is also known as "Parasurama-Sacam".[56] The Travancore Rajas claim descent from Chera King Bhanu Bikram, who was raised to the throne, by Parasurama.[57] In the Keralolpatti, Parasurama chose the goddess Durga (Kali) as guardian of Kerala's sea-shore. [58]
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Geography and climate

Kerala is wedged between the Lakshadweep sea and the Western Ghats. Lying between north latitudes 8°18' and 12°48' and east longitudes 74°52' and 77°22',[59][60] Kerala experiences the humid equatorial tropic climate. The state has a coast of length 590 km (370 mi)[61] and the width of the state varies between 35 and 120 km (22–75 miles). Geographically, Kerala can be divided into three climatically distinct regions: the eastern highlands (rugged and cool mountainous terrain), the central midlands (rolling hills), and the western lowlands (coastal plains). Located at the extreme southern tip of the Indian subcontinent, Kerala lies near the centre of the Indian tectonic plate; hence, most of the state is subject to comparatively little seismic and volcanic activity.[62] Pre-Cambrian and Pleistocene geological formations compose the bulk of Kerala’s terrain.

Anamudi from Eravikulam National Park


The eastern Kerala region consists of high mountains, gorges and deep-cut valleys immediately west of the Western Ghats' rain shadow. Forty-one of Kerala’s west-flowing rivers, and three of its east-flowing ones originate in this region. The Western Ghats form a wall of mountains interrupted only near Palakkad, where the Palakkad Gap breaks through to provide access to the rest of India. The Western Ghats rises on average to 1,500 m (4920 ft) above sea level, while the highest peaks may reach to 2,500 m (8200 ft). Anamudi is the highest peak at an elevation of 2,695 metres (8,842 ft). Just west of the mountains lie the midland plains comprising central Kerala, dominated by rolling hills and valleys.[59] Generally ranging between elevations of 250–1,000 m (820–3300 ft), the eastern portions of the Nilgiri and Palni Hills include such formations as Agastya Mala and Anamala.
Kerala’s western coastal belt is relatively flat, and is criss-crossed by a network of interconnected brackish canals, lakes, estuaries, and rivers known as the Kerala Backwaters. Lake Vembanad, Kerala’s largest body of water, dominates the Backwaters; it lies between Alappuzha and Kochi and is more than 200 km2 (77 sq mi) in area. Around 8% of India's waterways (measured by length) are found in Kerala.[63] The most important of Kerala’s forty-four rivers include the Periyar (244 km), the Bharathapuzha (209 km), the Pamba (176 km), the Chaliyar (169 km), the Kadalundipuzha River (130 km), the Valapattanam (129 km) and the Achankovil (128 km). The average length of the rivers of Kerala is 64 km. Many of the rivers are small and entirely fed by monsoon rains.[59] These conditions result in the nearly year-round water logging of such western regions as Kuttanad, 500 km² of which lies below sea level. As Kerala's rivers are small and lack deltas, they are more prone to environmental factors. The rivers also face problems such as sand mining and pollution.[64] The state experiences several natural hazards such as landslides, floods, lightning and droughts. The state was also affected by the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami.
A catastrophic flood in Kerala in 1341 CE drastically modified its terrain and consequently affected its history.[65] The course of the river Periyar was changed, and the Arabian Sea receded several miles. The Kuttanad region became cultivable, and the Muziris (Kodungalloor) harbour became defunct. A new harbour was developed at Kochi.[66][67]
With 120–140 rainy days per year, Kerala has a wet and maritime tropical climate influenced by the seasonal heavy rains of the southwest summer monsoon.[68]:80 In eastern Kerala, a drier tropical wet and dry climate prevails. Kerala's rainfall averages 3,107 mm (122 in.) annually. Some of Kerala's drier lowland regions average only 1,250 mm (49 in.); the mountains of eastern Idukki district receive more than 5,000 mm (197 in.) of orographic precipitation, the highest in the state.
During summer, Kerala is prone to gale force winds, storm surges, cyclone-related torrential downpours, occasional droughts, and rises in sea level.[69]:26, 46, 52 The mean daily temperatures range from 19.8 °C to 36.7 °C.[59] Mean annual temperatures range from 25.0–27.5 °C in the coastal lowlands to 20.0–22.5 °C in the eastern highlands
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Flora and fauna

Much of Kerala's notable biodiversity is concentrated and protected in the Western Ghats. Almost a fourth of India's 10,000 plant species are found in the state. Among the almost 4,000 flowering plant species (1,272 of which are endemic to Kerala and 159 threatened) are 900 species of medicinal plants.[70][71]:11
Its 9,400 km² of forests include tropical wet evergreen and semi-evergreen forests (lower and middle elevations—3,470 km²), tropical moist and dry deciduous forests (mid-elevations—4,100 km² and 100 km², respectively), and montane subtropical and temperate (shola) forests (highest elevations—100 km²). Altogether, 24% of Kerala is forested.[71]:12 Two of the world’s Ramsar Convention listed wetlandsLake Sasthamkotta and the Vembanad-Kol wetlands—are in Kerala, as well as 1455.4 km² of the vast Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve. Subjected to extensive clearing for cultivation in the 20th century,[72]:6–7 much of the remaining forest cover is now protected from clearfelling. Kerala's fauna are notable for their diversity and high rates of endemism: 102 species of mammals (56 of which are endemic), 453 species of birds, 202 species of freshwater fishes, 169 species of reptiles (139 of them endemic), and 89 species of amphibians (86 endemic).[70] These are threatened by extensive habitat destruction, including soil erosion, landslides, salinization, and resource extraction.[73]
Eastern Kerala’s windward mountains shelter tropical moist forests and tropical dry forests, which are common in the Western Ghats. Here, sonokeling (Dalbergia latifolia), anjili, mullumurikku (Erythrina), and Cassia number among the more than 1,000 species of trees in Kerala. Other plants include bamboo, wild black pepper, wild cardamom, the calamus rattan palm (a type of climbing palm), and aromatic vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides).[71]:12 Living among them are such fauna as Indian Elephant (Elephas maximus indicus), Bengal Tiger, Indian Leopard (Panthera pardus fusca), Nilgiri Tahr, Common Palm Civet, and Grizzled Giant Squirrel.[71]:12, 174–175 Reptiles include the King Cobra (Ophiophagus hannah), viper, python, and Mugger Crocodile (Crocodylus palustris) . Kerala's birds are legion—Malabar Trogon, the Great Hornbill, Kerala Laughingthrush, Darter, and Southern Hill Myna are several emblematic species. In lakes, wetlands, and waterways, fish such as kadu (stinging catfish) and Choottachi (Orange chromide—Etroplus maculatus) are found.[71]:163–165

Cassia Fistula, (Malayalam: കണിക്കൊന്ന, Kani Konna), is the state flower of Kerala.


[edit] Subdivisions

Main articles: Districts of Kerala and Corporations, Municipalities and Taluks of Kerala
Kerala's fourteen districts are distributed among Kerala's six historical regions: North Malabar (Far-north Kerala), South Malabar (northern Kerala), Kochi (central Kerala), Northern Travancore, Central Travancore (southern Kerala) and Southern Travancore (Far-south Kerala). Kerala's modern-day districts (listed in order from north to south) correspond to them as follows:Kerala's 14 districts, which serve as the administrative regions for taxation purposes, are further subdivided into 63 taluks; these have fiscal and administrative powers over settlements within their borders, including maintenance of local land records.Taluks of kerala are further divided into 1453 revenue villages and 1007 Gram panchayats.
Mahé, a part of the Indian union territory of Puducherry (Pondicherry), is a coastal exclave surrounded by Kerala on all of its landward approaches.











Malamuzhakky Vezhambal or Great Indian Hornbill, The state bird of Kerala



Haliastur indus commonly known as Krishnapparunthu in Kerala



A blue tiger (Tirumala limniace) butterfly in Chalakudy



Population density map of Kerala graded from darkest shading (most dense) to lightest (least dense)



The Kerala Legislative Assembly Building in Thiruvananthapuram
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Prehistory


A dolmen erected by Neolithic people in Marayur.


Main article: Pre-history of Kerala
Evidence of Kerala's early human occupation includes Dolmens of the Neolithic era, in the Marayur area. They are locally known as "muniyara", derived from muni (hermit or sage, and ara (dolmen).[19]
Rock-engravings in the Edakkal Caves (in Wayanad) are thought to date from the early to Late Neolithic eras around 5000 B.C.[20][21][22] The use of a specific Indus script pictogram in these caves suggests some relationship with the Indus Valley Civilization during the late Bronze Age and early Iron age.[23]
[edit] Early history and culture

Kerala was a major spice-exporter as early as 3,000 BCE, according to Sumerian Records.[24][25]
Kerala and Tamil Nadu once shared a common language and culture, within an area known as Tamilakam.[26] In the 1st century BCE, Tamil-speaking Dravidian Villavars[clarification needed] established the Chera Dynasty that ruled northern Kerala[27] from a capital at Vanchi. Southern Kerala was ruled by the Pandyan Kingdom, with a trading port variously identified by ancient Western sources as "Nelcynda" and "Neacyndi"[28] The Cheras had trading links with China, West Asia, Egypt and the Roman Empire. The value of Rome's annual trade with India as a whole was estimated at no less than 50,000,000 sesterces;[29] contemporary Sangam literature describes Roman ships coming to Muziris in Kerala, laden with gold to exchange for pepper.[30] One of the earliest western traders to use the monsoon winds to reach Kerala may have been Eudoxus of Cyzicus, around 118 or 166 BCE, under the patronage of Ptolemy VIII, king of the Hellenistic Ptolemaic dynasty in Egypt. Kerala is identified on the Tabula Peutingeriana, the only known surviving map of the Roman cursus publicus.[31]
The Chera kings' dependence on trade meant that merchants from West Asia and Southern Europe established coastal posts and settlements in Kerala.[32]:192–195, 303–307 The west asian-semitic [33] Jewish, Christian, and Muslim immigrants[33] established Juda Mappila, Nasrani Mappila, and Muslim Mappila communities respectively.[33][34] The Jews first arrived in Kerala in 573 BC.[35][36] According to local Syriac Nasrani Christian tradition as well as the works of scholars and Eastern Christian writings Thomas the Apostle visited Muziris in Kerala circa 52 CE to proselytize amongst Kerala's Jewish settlements.[37][38] The first mosque, synagogue, and church in India were built in Kerala.
A later Chera Kingdom was established c. 800–1102, with the help of Arab spice merchants. This is also called the Kulasekhara dynasty, as it was founded by Kulasekhara Varman, a Vaishnavaite saint. Ay kings ruled southern Kerala, but by the 10th century the Ay kingdom declined and became a part of the Chera Kingdom.[39] A Keralite identity, distinct from the Tamils became linguistically separate during this period.[40] The Kulasekhara dynasty came to an end by twelfth century, weakened by the invasions of Pandyas and Cholas.[30] In the absence of a strong central power, the state fractured into small principalities governed by Nair Cheftains. From these, the kingdoms of Kochi, Venad, Kolathiri and Kozhikode Samuthiri emerged.
[edit] The Colonial Era


This figure illustrates the path of Vasco da Gama heading for the first time to India (black line)


The western spice-trade, especially in pepper, became increasingly lucrative. Around the 13th century, the Portuguese began to dominate the eastern shipping trade in general, and the spice-trade in particular, culminating in Vasco Da Gama's arrival in Kappad Kozhikode in 1498.[41][42][43] On 25 March 1505, Francisco de Almeida was appointed Viceroy of Portuguese India, with headquarters at Kochi. The Portuguese had took advantage of conflicts between Kozhikode and Kochi to gain control of the trade, and established forts at Kannur, Cochin and Kollam but the Saamoothiri of Kozikode and his admiral Kunjali Marakkar resisted, and in 1571 the Portuguese were defeated at Chaliyam fort.

Dutch commander De Lannoy surrenders to Marthanda Varma at the Battle of Colachel. Depiction at Padmanabhapuram Palace



Tipu Sultan's fort at Palakkad; view from outside the northern wall.


The weakened Portuguese were ousted by the Dutch East India Company, who took advantage of continuing conflicts between Kozhikode and Kochi to gain control of the trade. The Dutch in turn were weakened by constant battles with Marthanda Varma of the Travancore Royal Family, and were defeated at the Battle of Colachel in 1741. The Dutch were allied to French forces in the transcontinental Napoleonic Wars; forces of the British East India Company marched against them from Calicut and took their surrender and possessions on 20 Oct 1795. In 1766, Hyder Ali, the ruler of Mysore invaded northern Kerala; his son and successor, Tipu Sultan, launched campaigns against the expanding British East India Company, resulting in two of the four Anglo-Mysore Wars. Tipu ultimately ceded Malabar District and South Kanara to the Company in the 1790s; the Company forged tributary alliances with Kochi in 1791 and Travancore in 1795. Malabar and South Kanara became part of the Madras Presidency.[44]

A nineteenth-century map of Madras Province in British India. After independence, Kerala was formed by merging Malabar, Cochin, Travancore and the South Kanara district


There were major revolts in Kerala against British rule in the 20th century, until Independence was achieved. They include the 1921 Malabar Rebellion and the 1946 Punnapra-Vayalar uprising in Travancore.[45] Other actions by Kerala's political and spiritual leaders[46] protested against social traditions such as untouchability, leading to the 1936 Temple Entry Proclamation that opened Hindu temples in Travancore to all castes; Malabar soon did likewise, and Cochin followed with a similar proclamation in 1948, after Independence. In the 1921 Moplah Rebellion, Mappila Muslims rioted against Hindu zamindars (see Zamindari system) and the British Raj.[47]
Post Independence
After British India was partitioned in 1947 into India and Pakistan, Travancore and Cochin voluntarily joined the Union of India and on 1 July 1949 were merged to form Travancore-Cochin. On 1 January 1950 (Republic Day), Travancore-Cochin was recognised as a state. The Madras Presidency was organised to form Madras State in 1947.
On 1 November 1956, the state of Kerala was formed by the States Reorganisation Act merging the Malabar district, Travancore-Cochin (excluding four southern taluks, which were merged with Tamil Nadu), and the taluk of Kasargod, South Kanara.[48] In 1957, elections for the new Kerala Legislative Assembly were held, and a reformist, communist-led government came to power, under E.M.S. Namboodiripad.[48] The new government's reforms improved the lot of farmers and labourers
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Subdivisions

Kerala's fourteen districts are distributed among Kerala's six historical regions: North Malabar (Far-north Kerala), South Malabar (northern Kerala), Kochi (central Kerala), Northern Travancore, Central Travancore (southern Kerala) and Southern Travancore (Far-south Kerala). Kerala's modern-day districts (listed in order from north to south) correspond to them as follows:Kerala's 14 districts, which serve as the administrative regions for taxation purposes, are further subdivided into 63 taluks; these have fiscal and administrative powers over settlements within their borders, including maintenance of local land records.Taluks of kerala are further divided into 1453 revenue villages and 1007 Gram panchayats.
Mahé, a part of the Indian union territory of Puducherry (Pondicherry), is a coastal exclave surrounded by Kerala on all of its landward approaches.
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Economy

Since independence, Kerala was managed as a democratic socialist welfare economy. Since the 1990s, liberalisation of the mixed economy allowed onerous Licence Raj restrictions against capitalism and foreign direct investment to be lightened, leading to economic expansion and job creation. In fiscal year 2007–2008, nominal gross state domestic product (GSDP) was 162,414.79 crore (US$36.22 billion).[84] Recent GSDP growth (9.2% in 2004–2005 and 7.4% in 2003–2004) has been robust compared to historical averages (2.3% annually in the 1980s and between 5.1%[85]:8 and 5.99%[86] in the 1990s).[85]:8 The state clocked 8.93% growth in enterprises from 1998 to 2005 compared with 4.80% nationally.[87] Relatively few such enterprises are major corporations or manufacturers.[69] Kerala's Human Development Index rating is the highest in India.[88] This apparently paradoxical "Kerala phenomenon" or "Kerala model of development" of high human and low economic development results from the strong service sector.[69]:48[89]:1
Kerala's economy depends on emigrants working in foreign countries (mainly in the Persian Gulf countries such as United Arab Emirates or Saudi Arabia) and remittances annually contribute more than a fifth of GSDP.[10][11][12] As of 2008, the Gulf countries altogether have a Keralite population of more than 2.5 million, who send home annually a sum of USD 6.81 billion,[90] which is more than 15.13% of Remittance to India in 2008.

Rural women processing coir threads


The service sector (including tourism, public administration, banking and finance, transportation, and communications—63.8% of GSDP in 2002–2003) and the agricultural and fishing industries (together 17.2% of GSDP) dominate the economy.[86][91] Nearly half of Kerala's people are dependent on agriculture alone for income.[92] Some 600 varieties[71]:5 of rice (Kerala's most important staple food and cereal crop)[93]:5 are harvested from 3105.21 km² (a decline from 5883.4 km² in 1990)[93]:5 of paddy fields; 688,859 tonnes are produced per annum.[92] Other key crops include coconut (899,198 ha), tea, coffee (23% of Indian production,[94]:13 or 57,000 tonnes[94]:6–7), rubber, cashews, and spices—including pepper, cardamom, vanilla, cinnamon, and nutmeg. Around 1.050 million fishermen haul an annual catch of 668,000 tonnes (1999–2000 estimate); 222 fishing villages are strung along the 590 km coast. Another 113 fishing villages dot the hinterland.
Kerala's coastal belt of Karunagappally is known for high background radiation from thorium-containing monazite sand. In coastal panchayats, median outdoor radiation levels are more than 4 mGy/yr and, in certain locations on the coast, it is as high as 70 mGy/yr. [95]
Traditional industries manufacturing such items as coir, handlooms, and handicrafts employ around one million people. Around 180,000 small-scale industries employ around 909,859 Keralites; 511 medium and large scale manufacturing firms are located in Kerala. A small mining sector (0.3% of GSDP)[91] involves extraction of ilmenite, kaolin, bauxite, silica, quartz, rutile, zircon, and sillimanite.[92] Home gardens and animal husbandry also provide work for hundreds of thousands of people. Other major sectors are tourism, manufacturing, and business process outsourcing. As of March 2002, Kerala's banking sector comprised 3341 local branches; each branch served 10,000 persons, lower than the national average of 16,000; the state has the third-highest bank penetration among Indian states.[96] On 1 October 2011, Kerala became the first state in the country to have banking facility in every village.[97] Unemployment in 2007 was estimated at 9.4%;[98] underemployment, low employability of youths, and a 13.5% female participation rate are chronic issues.[99]:5, 13[100] By 1999–2000, the rural and urban poverty rates dropped to 10.0% and 9.6% respectively.[101]
The state treasury has suffered loss of thousands of millions of rupees thanks to the state staging over 100 hartals annually in recent times. A record total of 223 hartals were observed in 2006, resulting in a revenue loss of over 2000 crore.
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Transport

Roads

Main article: Roads in Kerala
Kerala has 145,704 kilometres (90,536 mi) of roads (4.2% of India's total). This translates to about 4.62 kilometres (2.87 mi) of road per thousand population, compared to an all India average of 2.59 kilometres (1.61 mi). Virtually all of Kerala's villages are connected by road.
Roads in Kerala includes 1,524 km of National highway (2.6% of nation's total), 4341.6 km of state highway and 18900 km of district roads.[103] Most of Kerala's west coast is accessible through two national highways, NH 47, and NH 17 and eastern side is accessible through various State Highways. There is also a Hill Highway (Kerala) proposed, to make easy access to eastern hills.
NH 17 connects Edapally (Kochi) to Panavel (near Mumbai) and is the longest stretch of national highway through the state. The other major national highway passing through the state is National Highway 47 which connects Salem to Kanyakumari and passes through the major towns and cities like Palakkad, Thrissur, Kochi, Alappuzha, Kollam and Thiruvananthapuram. The Salem-Kochi stretch of this highway is a part of North-South Corridor of the Indian highway system. The length of the National Highway 47 (India) through Kerala is 416.8 km.[104] NH 49 (Kochi – Dhanushkodi), NH 208 (Kollam – Thirumangalam), NH 212 (Kozhikode – Mysore), NH 213 (Kozhikode – Palakkad), NH 220 (Kollam – theni) are the other national highways serving the state of Kerala.[105]
Department of Public Works is responsible for maintaining and expanding the state highways system and major district roads.The Kerala State Transport Project (KSTP), which includes the GIS-based Road Information and Management Project (RIMS), is responsible for maintaining and expanding the few state highways in Kerala; it also oversees few major district roads.[106][107]
Traffic in Kerala has been growing at a rate of 10–11% every year, resulting in high traffic and pressure on the roads. Kerala's road density is nearly four times the national average, reflecting the state's high population density. Kerala's annual total of road accidents is among the nation's highest.[108]
[edit] Railway


The main Portico of the Trivandrum Central Railway Station


The Indian Railways' Southern Railway line runs throughout the state, connecting all major towns and cities except those in the highland districts of Idukki and Wayanad. Railway network in the state controlled by three divisions of Southern Railway, namely Trivandrum Railway Division, Palakkad Railway Division and Madurai Railway Division. Trivandrum Central is the busiest railway station in the state and second busiest in the Southern Railway Zone after Chennai Central. Kerala's major railway stations are Kannur, Kozhikode, Shornur Junction, Palakkad Junction, Thrissur, Ernakulam Junction, Kottayam, kayankulam Junction, Kollam Junction and Thiruvananthapuram Central.
[edit] Airports


Cochin International Airport (CIAL)


Kerala has major international airports at Thiruvananthapuram , Kochi and Kozhikode. Kerala is the only state in India with three International Airports; a fourth is proposed at Kannur.[109] Thiruvananthapuram's Trivandrum International Airport is the first International airport in an Indian non-metro city. Kochi's CIAL is the busiest and largest in the state, and was the first Indian airport to be incorporated as a public limited company; funded by nearly 10,000 Non Resident Indians from 30 countries.[110]
Water ways

The coastal backwaters traversing the state are an important mode of inland navigation and transport. The estimated length of the waterways in Kerala is approximately 800km. A 205 km canal, National Waterway 3, runs between Kottapuram and Kochi
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